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CANCER SYMPTOMS & TREATMENT

WHAT IS A CANCER?
SYMPTOMS OF A CANCER
TREATMENTS FOR CANCER
CANCER SURGERY
RADIATION THERAPY
CHEMOTHERAPY
TARGETED THERAPY
BIOLOGIC THERAPHIES
HORMONAL THERAPIES
VASCULAR ACESS DEVICE
CLINICAL TRIALS
COMPLEMENTARY & ALTERNATIVE TREATMENTS
CANCER TREATMENTS SIDE EFFECTS
TREATMENT EVALUATION
AFTER CANCER TREATMENT
INFORMATION TREATMENT
SEARCH CLINICAL TRIALS
SEARCH COMPLEMENTARY OR ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES
EVALUATE INFORMATION ON THE INTERNET

Receiving a diagnosis of cancer presents numerous challenges: learning about your disease, selecting the physicians who will care for you, and making decisions about your treatment. Then come the day-today challenges: integrating the treatment schedule into your life, coping with the symptoms and side effects of the treatments, and finally making the transition to being a cancer survivor.

We hope our texts will provide information and support to help you in meeting these challenges. We have included information about cancer and cancer treatment, but the focus is on managing the symptoms of the disease and the side effects of treatment. Equally important is information we hope will help you and your family cope with the emotional and practical concerns that come up during this time.

 

Here you find a brief approach. Please visit www.academyofpublicpolices.org for learn the theme in detail

 

Cancer is a term used to describe over a hundred different diseases with certain features in common. A cancer begins with a change in the structure and function of a cell that causes the cell to divide and multiply out of control. The cells can subsequently invade and damage surrounding tissues, and cells can break away and spread to other areas in the body. A cancer is generally named for the organ or type of cell in which it first begins to grow.

Cancers are generally classified as solid tumors and liquid tumors. Solid tumors begin in an organ of the body, such as the breast or lung. Liquid tumors begin in the bone marrow or lymphatic system, which carries fluids throughout the body. Examples are leukemia (cancer of the blood or bone marrow), lymphoma (cancer in the lymphatic system), and multiple myeloma (cancer of the plasma cells in the blood).

When you speak with your doctor or read information about your cancer, you’ll find it easier if you understand the terms often used in speaking about cancer. A tumor is any abnormal mass or swelling in the body.

Looking at a sample of the tumor cells under a microscope, a pathologist can determine whether it is a benign (noncancerous) tumor or a malignant (cancerous) tumor. The pathologist can also determine the tumor’s grade, which is a measure of how abnormal the cells appear when examined under a microscope; in some cases, grade predicts how aggressive the cancer is. The stage is a measure of whether or not or how much the cancer has spread. To determine the stage, the doctor might order a variety of tests, such as blood tests, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radionuclide scanning (e.g., bone scan), positron emission tomography (PET), and, in some types of cancer, samples of bone marrow.

 

Most types of cancer progress through four stages:

• In Stage I, the tumor is localized to a small area within the organ in which it started.

• In Stage II, the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes in the area. (Lymph nodes are bean-shaped structures in the lymphatic system that filter lymph fluid before it is returned to the bloodstream.)

• In Stage III, the tumor is locally advanced (i.e., a cancerous tumor has spread to surrounding structures).

• In Stage IV, the tumor has metastasized (i.e., a cancerous tumor has spread to a distant site, such as the bones, the liver, or the brain).

For most cancer types, the stages are defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC).

 

To learn more about staging, go to www.cancerstaging.org

 

Terms:

 

Tumor - An abnormal swelling or mass in the body.

Benign - Noncancerous.

Malignant - Cancerous.

Grade - A measure of how abnormal a cell appears when examined under a microscope; in some cases, grade predicts how aggressive the cancer is.

Stage - A measure of how extensive the cancer is, that is, how much it has spread

Lymph nodes - Bean-shaped structures in the lymphatic system that filter lymph fluid before it is returned to the bloodstream.

Locally advanced - A cancerous tumor has spread to surrounding structures.

Metastasized - A cancerous tumor has spread to a distant site, such as the bones, the liver, or the brain

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